WTPP Abstracts: Volume 10 (2004)
Volume 10, Number 1 (2004) Back to the top
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Economic Value of Walkability
Todd Alexander Litman
This paper describes ways to quantify the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, consumer cost savings, public cost savings (reduced external costs), more efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques, described in this paper, are likely to increase public support for walking and other non-motorised modes of travel.
U.S. Air Transportation Since 9/11/2001: Disruption or Transformation?
James deBettencourt, Hank Dittmar and Anthony Perl
This article examines air service changes at U.S. commercial service airports from October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2003, to determine whether the U.S. air transportation network is experiencing structural change, as opposed to the cyclical variation in activity that has been common in this transport mode. Almost all U.S. airports saw fewer flights in the year following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. While many interpretations have attributed these airline schedule reductions to a discrete systemic shock that would eventually be eclipsed by a return to air travel's historic growth trend, several signs point to these changes representing the 'take-off' phase of a fundamental industry restructuring whose roots predate the 9/11 attacks. A second year of data on flight frequencies and capacity post 9/11 provides further evidence supporting this hypothesis. Our findings correspond with a recent economic analysis of airlines' financial performance attributing post 9-11 restructuring efforts to unsustainable structural factors, representing a 'more systemic industry crisis' that predated the 9-11 attacks (Nolan, et. al., 2004, 239).
Just how (Travel) Smart are Australian universities when it comes to implementing sustainable travel?
Carey Curtis and Carlindi Holling
Australia, like the United States, the UK and Europe, has seen the development of policies for sustainable travel in the past decade. Although not a new approach, Travel Demand Management Plans are one tool seeking to manage commuter travel for transport sustainability. Australian universities generate substantial commuter trips which result in a significant impact on transport infrastructure and on the community. Travel planning for universities needs also to be cognizant of the particular characteristics which set universities apart from other large employers.
The paper reviews international literature on TDM at universities in order to establish the extent to which TDM actions have been implemented. This provides a benchmark with which to compare action taken by Australian universities. The survey findings indicate that implementation of TDM in Australian universities is still in its infancy with only six of 25 surveyed universities developing TDM plans. The main focus of these plans is on improving public transport access. None seek to implement disincentives for access by car despite the heavily car dependent nature of those universities in suburban locations. Universities are reliant on individuals to champion the cause in the absence of federal legislation requiring such action. Such legislation may now be required in order to accelerate progress towards sustainable travel practices at Australian universities.
Practical Lessons for Winning Support for Radical Transport Proposals
Marcus Enoch, Sarah Wixey and Stephen Ison
This paper proposes that while many plans and solutions to the transport problems of the 21st Century have been mooted, very few have succeeded in significantly improving the situation within Europe. It is suggested that many schemes face problems at the project implementation stage due to adverse public and/or political reaction. This paper incorporates a series of vignettes, several of which are based on in-depth interviews with practitioners directly involved in the implementation of the schemes in question. It looks at several existing 'radical' transport schemes from around the world in an attempt to draw lessons as to how they overcame this, not least in terms of how the implementation of alternative strategies by European policy-makers could be shaped and adopted world-wide.
Volume 10, Number 2 (2004) Back to the top
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Time, Sustainable Transport and the Politics of Speed
Peter Harris, Jamie Lewis and Barbara Adam
This paper reports on recently conducted research under the EU's 5th Framework Programme. It discusses how temporality enters the transport system and the impact this can have on social groups. The paper is divided into two sections. The first undertakes a review of the current transport sector from a temporal perspective, which involves looking at basic characteristics of transport and seeing how they contain certain taken-for-granted temporal assumptions that are central to how and why people respond to their mobility requirements. Using a temporal framework of reference we examine four areas where the transport system is causing problems; congestion and sustainability, equity and safety. The second section outlines temporal proposals and measures, some of which are already in existence in selective policies across Europe. Devices that are beginning to address these problems include the institutional and temporal structures of time-offices and time-banks.
Emerging European-style planning in the USA: Transit-oriented development
John L. Renne and Jan S. Wells
The New Jersey Transit Village Initiative demonstrates a new role for state planning in the USA, one that is more European-like in nature. In an attempt to promote mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented, dense developments around transit stations in New Jersey &endash; transit-oriented developments &endash; the planning process has proven to be innovative and not typically American. This paper presents an overview of the Initiative and a summary of its evaluation. We conclude that the Transit Village Initiative in New Jersey is a good model of smart growth, which stems from active planning and intergovernmental co-operation on land use and transportation issues.
New localism and transport: a local perspective
Despite knowing the solutions, many aspects of transport in Britain are chaotic. An area where there are problems is regional and local government. There are many and varied levels of administration which need radical overhauling and streamlining. Additionally, these need financial muscle and real powers to get the job done. These are working in other European countries, including Wales and Scotland, and there is nothing to suggest that they would not work in England.
Co-operative paratransit transport schemes appropriate for a developing economy
F.O. Ogunwolu & J.O. Akanmu
This paper presents innovative paratransit schemes that will be found appropriate and useful in developing economies against the backdrop of underdevelopment, economic downturn and the need to combat congestion at public transit stations such as bus stops and bus terminals. Two such paratransit schemes, Co-operative School Bus Ride Scheme and Co-operative Company Bus Ride Scheme, as well as other modifications of such schemes, are presented. The individual schemes are proposed considering the modes of operation, ownership, control, benefits and possible drawbacks. The schemes are individually argued to be virtually stress-free, and they provide answers to congestion and attendant problems experienced by the categories of commuters they are to cater for at bus stops and terminals. The schemes are designed to address the peak period surge in demand from school children and company and government employees which usually over-stretches terminal and bus-stop facilities for the available (but equally over-subscribed) mass transit buses and cabs. Possible compositions, duties and regulation of management and control bodies for the schemes are discussed as well as the modes of operation of the individual co-operative paratransits.
Volume 10, Number 3 (2004) Back to the top
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Logistics and transport &endash; a conceptual model
Per Homann Jespersen & Lise Drewes Nielsen
This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistics principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to overcome inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relationship.
Fresh Salmon from Norway to Japan &endash; A case study of a global supply chain
Tina Petersen & Lise Drewes Nielsen
This article is a case study of a global supply chain constructed for the purpose of bringing fresh salmon from Norway to Japan within 36 hours. The article will demonstrate an analytical framework developed to analyse such a supply chain and point out the nature of the logistics decision making involved in building it up. At a micro level the chain is constructed from following the logic of excellent logistics performance, but at a macro level it is a story of a 'crazy case' of flying fish.
Transport logistics effects of new traffic infrastructures &endash; examples from the Scandinavian Links
Leif Gjesing Hansen
This article esamines the consequences for transport and logistics reorganisation following the establishment of fixed links across Great Belt and Oresund in Denmark. The greatest changes in the organisation of transport and logistics chains have been among transport firms, whereas firms within the manufacturing or retailing industries have seen limited or no change. In general, for all the types of firms in this study, the impact from the fixed links on location and organisation of trading links has been rather neutral. A greater impact can be detected in the way firms changed their management of material flows and transport resources. Vehicle kilometres seem to grow as a consequence of the fixed links, while more radical changes in the logistics structures of production and distribution systems are still absent.
The transport content of products
Per Homann Jespersen
Different factors influence the quantity of freight transport &endash; economic growth, technology, infrastructure, organisation, etc. This paper is about methods to measure the effect on transport of such factors. Indicators for transport have been developed and used in empirical studies, improving our understanding of the processes generating transport. Results of quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative studies based on this methodology are given.
Future workshops on freight transport &endash; a methodology for actor involvement
Lise Drewes Nielsen, Per Homann Jespersen & Katrine Hartmann-Petersen
This paper presents results from three future workshops in Denmark arranged by researchers at Roskilde University in collaboration with stakeholders from the freight transport sector. The aim of the workshops was to overcome the limitations of 'desktop research' and create visions of freight transport based on active dialogue with stakeholders in the sector. The paper also evaluates future workshops as a methodology of action and dialogue.
A sociological perspective on supply chains &endash; an interview analysis
Lise Drewes Nielsen and Else Nygaard
Logistics principles of management and technology such as Supply Chain Management have brought about changes in transport firms, and have had consequences for managers and employees. Supply Chain Learning is a concept that tries to analyse these changes from a sociological and humanistic point of view. We asked eight logistics managers in Denmark, representing four different chains, to evaluate the obstacles and driving forces behind Supply Chain Learning.
Volume 10, Number 4 (2004) Back to the top
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World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention
Meleckidzedeck Khayesi & Margie Peden
This paper is a synopsis of a major report by the WHO which collates information on crashes worldwide. It summarises the key findings and the recommendations of the report.
Promoting inclusion through Bus Quality Partnerships in southwest England
Kazushige Terada & John Dinwoodie
Following deregulation of local bus services and reducing subsidies, investment in low floor vehicles and bus shelters to combat exclusion in rural and ageing populations in southwest England depended on attracting corporate funding. Bus quality partnerships developed existing relationships between operators and authorities to attain common objectives and embed corporate corridor strategy plans into Local Transport Plans. Dynamic local markets suited flexible demand-responsive partnerships with monitoring to ensure best value for money and promote inclusion.
The 'YOU-move.nrw' campaign &endash; New partnerships for youth-oriented and environmentally friendly mobility management
In the summer of 2002 the Wuppertal Institute evaluated the YOU-move.nrw campaign which was organised in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The campaign is a 'soft factor' policy designed to promote environmentally friendly modes of transport. It is targeted at the youth market to encourage environmentally friendly modes of transport and to increase public awareness of sustainable mobility.
An evaluation of the traffic and financial performance of the MRT-3 light-rail/metro line in Manila
Marius de Langen, Edwin Alzate & Hillie Talens
This paper documents the performance of the Metro Rail Transit Line 3 (MRT-3) light rail line in Manila.
- Capacity utilisation is around 100% in the peak, 60% during the daytime and 30% in the evening hours.
- MRT-3 has not attracted car drivers. Of MRT-3 passengers, 99% do not have their own car available for the trip. However, 27% made their trips as car passengers before.
- The dominant user is 25&endash;40 years (73%), middle income (66%), 52% female and 48% male. Most trips are for work, school or business (82%).
- Travellers are very satisfied with the level of service.
- Utilisation was highly sensitive to the tariff. Full capacity utilisation was only reached after fare reduction to just above the bus fare.
- Fare revenue is structurally insufficient to recover costs (2002: 20%).
- Profit on real estate development linked to MRT stations is high, due to their good accessibility. This, plus value increase of other real estate along the MRT (for the same reason) outweighs the total cost of line construction and operation.
- MRT-3 is financially attractive for the Metro Rail Transit Corporation. The Philippine government carries all operational risk and receives a modest share of real estate revenues. Subsidy up to 2023 will probably be around 50%.
Evaluating bicycle-car transport mode competitiveness in an urban environment. An activity-based approach
Frank Witlox & Hans Tindemans
Since the bicycle is believed to be an important sustainable alternative for the increasingly problematic auto-mobility, this paper discusses the potential modal shift from car to bicycle in the urban region of Ghent. Based on travel diary data the relationships between mode, activity, distance, location and socio-demographic background are explored. In addition, specific attention is paid to urban level of the origin and destination of each trip and to the influence of distance and speed as crucial factors for the competitiveness of cycling to car and other transportation modes.