WTPP Abstracts: Volume 9 (2003)
Download this issue here: wtpp09.1.pdf
The UK National Cycle Network: an assessment of the benefits of a sustainable transport infrastructure
Andy Cope, Sally Cairns, Ken Fox, Debbie A Lawlor, Mary Lockie, Les Lumsdon, Chris Riddoch, Paul Rosen
The UK National Cycle Network has increased opportunities for people to make trips by bicycle and on foot. In this paper, data from the NCN route usage monitoring project is analysed to examine the implications of the NCN for health, social inclusion, economic opportunities through tourism and recreation, and the nature of cyclists and cycling. Analysis of the survey data suggests that various benefits are being realised. The capacity of the NCN to further impact in these and other areas is discussed.
An evaluation of the bicultural services of the McAllen Central Bus Station linking the USA & Mexico
The Central Station in McAllen, Texas, is the first bus station ever to serve bus lines from both the USA and Mexico. This bus station aims to provide the public with a transportation facility that can supply transportation services to lower income individuals, Mexican tourists and immigrants. Based on the results of this survey, it can be seen that the passengers from both countries are impressed with the cleanliness, appearance, signs and restrooms, and the friendliness of the drivers.
Public transport provision in two European cities &endash; Oxford & Odense
This paper provides a comparison of bus transport provision in two cities, Odense (Denmark) and Oxford (UK), in terms of regulatory frameworks used. A comparison of these cities is interesting because public transport is organised in significantly different ways &endash; in Oxford bus services are largely based on an open entry model, whereas bus services in Odense are provided by a public entity. In contrast to the rest of Great Britain usage of buses in Oxford has increased significantly since bus deregulation was implemented through the Transport Act 1985.
Stelios &endash; the accidental environmentalist? The potential impacts of the Easycar Club in the UK
Julia Meaton, Richard Starkey & Sue Williams
In March 2003 Stelios Haji-Ioannou publicised his plans for establishing as many as 30 Easycar Clubs in the UK within the next year. This paper shows how Stelios arrived at the concept of operating Car Clubs through purely cost cutting motives. The paper includes an overview of the operational details of the proposed car clubs and compares them with more conventional community car clubs. The potential environmental impacts of the Easycar Club are then considered.
United States aviation transportation policies ignore the hazards of airport-related noise
Arline L. Bronzaft
By relying on methods that underestimate the numbers of people affected by airport-related noises and dismissing the growing evidence that aviation noise is harmful to health, quality of life and children's development, United States aviation transportation policies largely ignore the impacts of airport-related noises on residents. Anti-aviation-noise community groups continue to demand the refunding of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control which once had the responsibility of protecting citizens from the dangers of noise.
The future development of air traffic in the UK
There is not a convincing case for investing in any of the new runways or airports proposed by the Department for Transport (2002). If air transport covered all its social costs by paying the same fuel taxes as other transport, air fares would increase and hence air traffic would decrease. The case for taxing air transport is so powerful that current international negotiations should lead to new charges on aviation. Extensions of runway capacity, while traffic decreases, would lead to losses on investment. Private investors should not rely on a future government to cover such losses when present government policy excludes public funding of new airport capacity.
Download this issue here: wtpp09.2.pdf
The Global Tyranny of Roads: Observations from Mumbai & Melbourne
Nicholas Low & Swapna Banerjee-Guha
At a time when the cracks are showing in the West's economic development (air pollution, climate change, etc.), the developing countries are pursuing the same model which has created social and ecological instability. Be that as it may, economic development, viewed as an increase in use value, is not necessarily at odds with ecological sustainability. Only when economic development is a replica of the Northern model is there a conflict with sustainability in which rich and poor alike suffer the consequences. With these considerations in mind the contemporary conditions and transport policies of Mumbai and Melbourne are compared.
Slow Vehicle Traffic is a more Attractive Alternative to Fast Vehicle Traffic than Public Transport
Environmental groups usually support the extension of public transport as an alternative to roadway improvement. Public transport is seen as the alternative to vehicle traffic. However, another alternative is to make more efficient use of existing roadway capacity. Only in special cases can public transport be more attractive than slow vehicle traffic. The concept of slow vehicle traffic can be evaluated by cost-benefit analysis.
Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies
Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies.
This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the so-called Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent contribution to the discussions within the EU-sponsored BEST Thematic Network (Benchmarking European Sustainable Transport) which ran from 2000 to 2003.
Time to Change the Old Paradigm: Promoting Sustainable Urban Transport in Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Imran & Nicholas Low
Urban transport is one of the most important sectors having a direct bearing on sustainable development because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes more important in the case of Pakistan where the motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Especially in Lahore, designed transport strategies and programs have resulted in high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution, and traffic crashes. The purpose of this paper is to review the adequacy and deficiency of transport planning in Lahore and to recommend some measures for developing a sustainable urban transport system in the city.
Local mobility management & urban renewal in public-private-partnership &endash; the example of the 'Car reduced living in an existing residential area at Johannesplatz in Halle/Saale' demonstration
'Car-reduced living in an existing residential area at
Johannesplatz in Halle/Saale' demonstration is the first
attempt in Germany to realise car-free living in an existing
residential area. It contributes to a more sustainable city
and mobility. At Johannesplatz, a local mobility management
and urban renewal process has been initiated. The process
started with a traffic experiment.
This interim report describes the background, the aim and the approach of the ongoing project as well as the current status of project development. It shows the implemented measures of the traffic experiment, their positive results for environmental quality and the degree of acceptance by the residents.
The main focus is on the successful co-operative planning process of a public&endash;private partnership between the municipality of Halle/Saale and a local housing company. The realised measures have been intensively discussed in a permanent participation process with the people living at Johannesplatz and have been carried out in consensus with them.
Download this issue here: wtpp09.3.pdf
Traffic without violence: The path to a vision
This paper outlines the development of 'Vision Zero' in Sweden. It is a new approach to road safety; it starts from the viewpoint that one casualty &endash; even an injury &endash; is one too many. This, after all, is routine in industry and, indeed, it is the norm within some sectors of transport such as rail and aviation. The result of not adopting a similar zero tolerance attitude towards road transport is a situation where people have been terrorised off of the streets outside their homes, where children's play is restricted and where the streets have become unsafe for pedestrians. This is wrong. It needs to be reversed, now.
Integration of cycling & Light Rapid Transit: Realising the potential
Hugh McClintock & Dave Morris
This paper discusses the results of a recent project on the integration of cycling and light rapid transit with particular reference to recent experience in the UK but drawing also on relevant lessons from other countries. It focuses on the safety implications for cyclists of LRT and LRT-related infrastructure, the advantages and disadvantages of existing and possible in-vehicle arrangements for bike access, and the requirements for cycle parking at LRT stops.
'Walk it, Bike it, Bus it': Perceptions of active modes of transport
Genevieve Stone, Billie Giles-Corti, Sharon McBride & Beth Jackson
Despite knowing that regular physical activity is good for health, levels of physical activity in Australia and overseas have declined. Contemporary theoretical frameworks provide a more comprehensive approach to understanding human behaviour by integrating biological and psychological factors with wider social, cultural and environmental influences. This approach suggests a need to identify legislative, policy, planning and design infrastructure factors that can contribute to supportive social, natural and constructed environments to increase physical activity, especially incidentally for transport.
This study investigated perceptions of active and alternative forms of transport to the motor vehicle as one way of increasing incidental physical activity. The research was conducted in a regional city in the south-west of Western Australia, where the local government expressed interest in the findings to inform strategic transport planning.
Modal transport choices were influenced by seven key factors: time, distance, purpose of trip, safety/security, social perceptions of transport and features within the natural and built environment. Travel by public transport was mostly influenced by individual factors: control, convenience and choice. Numerous individual, social and environmental barriers inhibit active modes of travel, especially by public transport.
Many barriers are best addressed through an approach that seeks to create supportive environments for active transport through healthy public policy, supportive infrastructure and committed inter-sectoral partnerships, such as with health, transport, planning, environment and local government.
Tourism by the elderly in Europe
Aranta van den Broeke & Wim Korver
There is an increasing number of senior citizens in western Europe who are both time rich and income rich. They are using this increased leisure time for travel and holidays. Despite their possible need for a more personal service when on holiday, they do not wish to be pigeon-holed as 'elderly' or 'old'. Tourism authorities in the Netherlands would do well to target this niche market as senior tourists tend to spend more when on holiday and they tend to holiday more often than other tourists.
Car Club Development: The Role of Local Champions
Julia Meaton & Christopher Low
This paper considers the importance of local champions for the successful initiation and development of car clubs. The parallels between car club champions and other environmental champions are explored and the roles such individuals have within companies and communities are investigated. The paper highlights how important it is for car club champions to be embedded within the community so that their role as 'agents of change' can be maximised. In order to achieve such change champions need to be able to tap into social capital and use and develop social networks within their community. Champions also need to be sensitive to the heterogeneous nature of many communities and should be ready to adjust their message according to their audience. This paper also considers the impact champions have on the characteristics of resulting car clubs and looks at their continuing role once a car club has been established. The policy implications of our findings are then explored.
Download this issue here: WTPP09.4.pdf
Sustainability & Road User Charging in UK Cities
Ben Winterton & William Sheate
There has been no published study to date concerning the wider sustainability issues surrounding road user charging in the UK, although numerous authors have discussed the economic and political feasibility of road user charging and the implications of charging. This research examines the environmental, social, legal, economic and political (sustainability) issues surrounding road user charging, in six local authorities using an in-depth case-study protocol. Interviews were conducted and documentary material collected with senior local authority strategic transport planners, business representatives, environmental co-ordinators and Passenger Transport Executives in those local authorities which intended to take up, were considering, or had ruled out charging as a means of combating congestion. Based on the case study findings to produce a rudimentary sustainability framework and by suggesting a range of issues that need to be addressed before charging is introduced, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made which will help to facilitate the implementation of road user charging schemes in the future. This framework could also contribute to the production of a set of national best-practice guidelines for road user charging implementation.
Speed Elasticity of Mileage Demand
Rudolf Pfleiderer & Martin Dieterich
In the political discussion relating to transportation policy, surprisingly little attention is paid to the increase in distance travelled as a result of improved infrastructure. For passenger transport empirical data indicate that the speed elasticity of mileage demand is approximately 1. This means that the distances travelled increase proportionally to the travel speed. Using elasticity functions that are well known from economics, we derive a general formula to calculate traffic induced by the improvement of infrastructure. The realistic consideration of induced traffic is a precondition for the assessment of environmental effects (fuel consumption and emissions). Acceleration of traffic by improved infrastructure is identified as a major reason for traffic growth. The most efficient means of transportation demand management is to decelerate traffic.
We derive how fuel consumption and emissions are to be calculated for arbitrary numerical values of the speed elasticity.
Gender equality & transport policy in Sweden
In 2001, the Swedish parliament made gender equality a goal of transport policy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of this process. The results show that, in general, policy documents simply equate gender equality with women, and measures for attaining more gender equality with public transport. This suggests that without both conceptual and structural changes, gender mainstreaming is an ineffectual strategy for promoting gender equality in the transportation sector in Sweden.
Petroleum culture versus Earth living &endash; The fallacy of the technofix
In this essay, the author discusses our dependence on oil &endash; even if we become fossil-fuel 'independent'; the many technofixes being offered are just as oil-dependent. We are deluding ourselves if we think we can use technology to stem the forthcoming ecological crisis.