WTPP Abstracts: Volume 8 (2002)
Download this issue here: wtpp08.1.pdf
Children's perceptions of transport
Simon Kingham & Sarah Donohoe
The aim of this project was to find out at what age children become aware of cars and transport problems, especially environmental aspects. Eighty interviews were undertaken asking questions about cars, transport issues and attitudes to these. It was found that brand, speed and value awareness increases with age. Children as young as four years of age are aware of the makes and types of car. Results suggest an awareness of accident risk at age five, but no environmental awareness till age ten.
How does a family car matter? Leisure, travel & attitudes of adolescents in inner city Stockholm
Adolescents' leisure activities, travel experiences and attitudes toward car-ownership were studied in inner-city Stockholm. 37 of the 71 participating adolescents lived in car-free households. In this setting, a family car made no difference for their leisure activities as both categories enjoyed extensive independent mobility by walking and public transport. The majority had experienced international recreational travels by air. Car-ownership influenced attitudes about the importance of a family car for children, as both adolescent categories endorsed their own situation.
Investigating perceptions of personal security on the Valley Lines rail network in South Wales
Paul M. Cozens, Richard H. Neale, Jeremy Whitaker & David Hillier
The government's goal of producing an Integrated Transport Policy places increasing emphasis upon the railways. As congestion in Britain's cities continues to impact detrimentally upon health, economic vitality and urban futures, the railways offer a mode of transport that can help to resolve such issues. Furthermore, public transport has a crucial role to play in helping to alleviate social exclusion -- since not all of society can afford to or wish to operate a motor vehicle. It has been demonstrated that a significant factor in determining mode of transport is personal safety/security concerns of potential users -- their perceptions will influence levels of patronage. Crime and nuisance on public transport and, more specifically, the railways has therefore emerged as a relatively recent focus for investigation. This paper investigates station design and management, why people feel 'unsafe' and presents the findings from a preliminary study of crime and nuisance on the Valley Lines network in South Wales. It argues that a station-specific approach is necessary to more fully engage with the highly complex relationship that exists between perceptions of crime and nuisance and station design.
More about 'twisted logic' ... the position of 'soft people' from an upside-down world of 'road safety' ideology
Recent articles (in Volume 7, Numbers 1 & 2) have addressed issues 'about' road safety as it is currently constructed rather than 'for' road safety as it might be constructed to reduce road danger and encourage sustainable transport. By reference to these previous articles, this article raises issues which it is argued are part of the 'road safety' ideology which effectively prevents safety of non-motorised road users being valued by 'road safety' authorities. The article seeks to examine why current 'road safety' cannot provide the setting required for a 'safe' transport system without both safety and convenience for all road users.
Road traffic congestion: The extent of the problem
Francois Schneider, Axel Nordmann & Friedrich Hinterberger
This paper considers a variety of data on the problem of congestion in Europe. Definitions, measures with time loss and different critics, and alternative analysis are presented so that a differentiated picture may be derived. The paper also explores the existing dynamics between congestion relative to road use and general traffic effects.
Congestion is a serious problem, localised in specific places and times, especially in cities at peak hours. However, the reality appears otherwise when we consider the problem on a larger scale and when we deal with the dynamics of road use. In general, congestion is considered to be less costly than it was thought previously and its impact is relatively negligible when compared with other transport consequences.
Why rural areas in Britain will not benefit from lower transport fuel duty
At the end of 2000, the U.K. Government put forward its new policies for transport in rural areas. Two of the main areas of policy were reducing transport fuel duty and increasing the level of support for public transport. In this paper, I argue that these are two incompatible strategies and that substantial increases in fuel duty, rather than decreases, may have more benefit to rural areas. I show that accessibility in most rural areas in Britain has been in decline for years and argue that reducing transport fuel duty is only likely to increase problems of social exclusion and environmental damage in these areas. I begin this paper by outlining current government policy on transport in rural areas. I present some of the recent trends in accessibility, showing that many local services in rural areas are in decline. I then examine the implications of these trends for transport and identify how increases in fuel duty may benefit rural areas in terms of accessibility, social inclusion and environmental quality.
Strategic Environmental Assessment: a new paradigm for the EU?
Environmental policy in Europe can be considered to exist in a neo-liberal context. Strategic Environmental Assessment may constitute a challenge to the prevailing neo-liberal ethos of the European Union and have implications for those states within it that are most enamoured of competitiveness, deregulation and a declining role for the State, notably Britain. The troubled gestation of Strategic Environmental Assessment poses fundamental questions about both transport and environmental policy in the EU and whether fundamental challenges to neo-liberalism might be needed to fully integrate environmental policy into other policy areas.
Download this issue here: wtpp08.2.pdf
Compromise & constraint: Examining the nature of transport disability in the context of local travel
This paper examines the question of 'what is transport disability?' It argues that research on transport disability gains depth and value by making stronger links with the major developments in theoretical understandings of disability from the last twenty-five years. Priestley's (1998) four-fold typology of disability theory provides a framework for exploring the complex and contingent nature of transport disability, using qualitative research into disabled people's experience of local transport in Swansea, UK.
Older people & road safety: Dispelling the myths
This paper attempts to look objectively at accidents to elderly travellers and the resultant casualties. It will show that while older travellers have fewer slight accidents than younger travellers, a disproportionate number of older travellers are killed in road accidents.
'Enabling' transport for mobility-impaired people: the role of Shopmobility
Shopmobility provides a vital link in the community transport chain in the United Kingdom. It has been designed to secure for mobility-impaired people equality of access to shopping facilities and 'barrier-free' movement within town centres. This report introduces key findings from a nationwide audit of Shopmobility services within the context of a U.K. government commitment to an 'inclusionary' and integrated transport policy.
Concessionary fares in Britain: what we need to know
Tom Rye, David Seaman, David McGuigan & David Siddle
Concessionary travel on public transport is available in the U.K. to pensioners and people with disabilities. The concession varies geographically. There are free travel or reduced fare schemes while other local authorities provided tokens; some schemes are limited to one's home local authority, others allow use in neighbouring authorities. On this hotchpotch, the Government has legislated for new national minima of a minimum half fare within existing scheme boundaries. However, Scotland and Wales have their own ideas.
This paper will first consider how much the UK taxpayer currently pays for concessionary travel schemes, and what this buys in terms of discounts. It will then review the data that are available about existing levels of travel by people who are eligible for a concession. Finally, it will consider how the concession is changing and some of the effects that this might have, and the research that is needed to find out whether this use of money represents best value.
The Disability Discrimination Act & developments in accessible public transport in the U.K.
This paper outlines some of the background to the Disability Discrimination Act and its transport provisions and sets out some of the expected future developments. The paper reviews the major developments in the implementation of the transport components of the Act; it highlights its key implications for future provision and seeks to identify salient lessons for the international community.
Evaluating Transportation Equity
Transportation gives people the opportunity to access goods, services and activities that provide benefits. Transportation helps determine where people can live, shop, work, go to school, and recreate. Transportation is therefore about opportunity and equity.
This paper explores the concept of transportation equity and suggests better ways to incorporate fairness into transportation decisions. It describes three major types of equity: horizontal equity, vertical equity with respect to income, and vertical equity with respect to need and ability. How transportation is defined and measured often determines how equity is evaluated. Current transportation equity issues are discussed, and examples are used to explore the equity implications of specific decisions. Case studies include automobile user charges, transit funding, and traffic management.
Download this issue here: wtpp08.3.pdf
Urban transport patterns in a global sample of cities & their linkages to transport infrastructure, land use, economics & environment
Jeff Kenworthy & Felix Laube
Urban transport and the issue of motorisation or 'automobile dependence' have become critical shaping factors in the future sustainability and livability of all cities. This paper provides an overview of a selected group of factors that help define some of the main features of urban transport in metropolitan regions around the world. The aim is to provide decision-makers and policy analysts some basic perspective on where cities in their region sit in a global context. The paper also points to some key policy issues that emerge from the data and which have considerable bearing on issues such as priorities in urban infrastructure development. The data are drawn from the Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport compiled over 3 years by the authors for the International Association of Public Transport (UITP) in Brussels. The database provides data on 100 cities on all continents. Data summarised here represent regional averages from 84 of these fully completed cities in the U.S.A., Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Western Europe, Asia (high and low income areas), Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, Africa and China.
Travel Demand Management: The potential for enhancing urban rail opportunities & reducing automobile dependence in cities
Jeff Kenworthy & Felix Laube
Using data from a large international comparison of cities in North America, Australia, Europe and Asia, a review is made of the role of transport infrastructure provision in shaping transport patterns and travel speeds in cities. A case is made for moving away from supply-side, road-oriented approaches to transport which induce more traffic, and towards demand management, that emphasises public transport, walking and cycling and de-emphasises investment in roads. Urban rail is shown to play a critical role in shaping urban transport patterns and in helping cities to manage travel demand and reduce their level of automobile dependence.
Download this issue here: wtpp08.4.pdf
Improving mobility & access for the off-road rural poor through Intermediate Means of Transport
This paper is concerned with the potential of Intermediate Means of Transport (IMTs) for improving mobility and alleviating access problems in off-road areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Off-road rural populations appear to be disadvantaged and vulnerable in many respects. They characteristically appear markedly poorer in income terms, in health and in life chances than those in comparable roadside locations in the same region, though, obviously, not all off-road people are disadvantaged to the same degree by their location: women and children in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer much of the burden of off-road transport, for instance.
In the first section I briefly review the range of difficulties commonly faced by men, women and children resident in off-road locations as a result of restricted mobility and poor access. The second section of the paper focuses on the potential of Intermediate Means of Transport for alleviating access/mobility problems in off-road areas. Constraints on IMT use among different sectors of the off-road rural poor are examined through presentation of a case study from coastal Ghana, while recent evidence from the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, is used to illustrate the enormous potential of IMTs, in favourable circumstances, for improving access and reducing isolation.
Unprofitable rural bus services: Market structure & tender prices since Deregulation
Robert John Langridge
Many of the cost benefits to local authorities of post-deregulation competitive tendering have recently been reversed. This has been attributed to increases in wage costs resulting from driver shortage. This article argues that the situation is more complex and that factors such as the level of competition, operator motivation and tendering strategies also have a part to play. It also argues that responses such as the Rural Bus Subsidy Grant involve a high-risk premium and could merely represent a subsidy to operators.
Driver road rule knowledge & attitudes towards cyclists
Chris Rissel, Fiona Campbell, Bruce Ashley & Lisa Jackson
Many potential cyclists do not cycle on the road because of safety concerns. Drivers' knowledge of road rules and attitudes towards cyclists on the road were assessed. A telephone survey of 105 randomly selected adults in Sydney, Australia, with a current driver's licence was conducted. Less than half the sample (43%) was aware of recent changes to the Australian road rules. The majority of respondents (76%) reported high perceptions of danger associated with cycling, although respondents who had recently cycled on the road were significantly less likely to report these concerns of danger.
Household-focused travel behaviour change initiatives -- Critical new tools in Travel Demand Management
Two travel behaviour change approaches, which focus on the provision of information to households about how they can use private motor vehicles less and more efficiently, have shown promising results in Australia. These approaches are described and the results summarised.
Reductions in car use of around 14% have been measured, with associated increases in public transport patronage, walking and cycling. The approaches serve to increase awareness of the societal reasons for reducing car use, and also assist people to change their own travel behaviour in ways that provide individual benefits.
U.K. Regional Air Services Consultations: a summary of & commentary on the RASCO Reference Case
In July 2002 the U.K. Department for Transport released its consultations on Regional Air Services, as a precursor to issuing a White Paper designed to provide a policy framework for the next thirty years of U.K. aviation. Key among the scenarios is the RASCO Reference Case, which assumes a near-tripling of U.K. demand over 2000 -- 2030 to about 500 mppa. This paper summarises the characteristics and impacts of the reference scenario, collated from the seven regional studies, and shows a clear disjunction between a commonly accepted noise threshold and the implications of Reference Case demand forecasts. Even under the politically challenging assumption of significant technological improvement by aircraft (--14 dB(A) on present 'Chapter 3' standards), enforcement of a rule of no additional daytime residential exposure to > 57 dB(A) Leq would prevent the expansion necessary to meet reference case demand at Heathrow, Stansted, Luton and Birmingham, with lesser problems at Liverpool John Lennon and Newcastle airports. There is a need for legally-binding, long-term agreements between airports and regulators, designed to phase incremental reductions in the size of populations exposed to annoying levels of aircraft noise (> 57 dB(A) Leq).
Had enough of Auto-dominance yet?
With future urban growth, we are facing a serious problem of even greater congestion, with all its unpleasant side-effects than at present. Solutions based on 19th century transit systems, such as light rail, have not proved effective in shifting commuters from automobiles -- rather they have moved passengers from existing modes, such as buses. It is time to look carefully at cutting edge alternatives which can offer a high speed, clean, efficient and seamless journey.
Emerging Innovative Transit Systems: A sceptical view
This is a response to 'Had Enough of Auto-Dominance Yet?' by Jerry Schneider who advocates the use of new high-tech modes of transport. The origin of these modes appear to lie in the simplistic notions that there can be the prospect of transferring onto them a significant proportion of journeys currently made by car and that, from an environmental and ecological perspective, as they are 'public' transport, they are unquestionably 'good'.
A challenge for the imagination: How will ubiquitous wireless change cars?
Personal transportation has not been touched nearly as much by the information revolution as other sectors. The Wireless Internet on one side, and global warming and congestion on the other, will accelerate change. Will car-to-car communication make roads sufficiently safer and more efficient to extend the reign of the private car? Car sharing appears positioned to benefit more, but replacing fixed public transit with intelligent jitneys is most likely to offer order-of-magnitude improvement.
Another deluded car fanatic. Reply to 'A challenge for the imagination: How will ubiquitous wireless change cars?'
This is a response to 'A challenge for the imagination: How will ubiquitous wireless change cars?' The paper is fundamentally flawed by two key delusions: all car transport problems can be solved -- without reducing the 'right' of motorists to carry on as usual -- by applying high-powered electronic technologies, and that motorists are being restricted, when in fact they are not. This latter delusion is profoundly dangerous.