WTPP Abstracts: Volume 7 (2001)
Download this issue here: wtpp07.1.pdf
Patrick Kinnersly has been campaigning for sane, safe, integrated transport for most of the 1990s in Southern England. He has realised that regardless of the strength of his argument, the Government has chosen to ignore him and others and continue with the discredited 'predict and provide' approach to transport infrastructure. Here we publish his open letter to Halcrow, the consultants contracted by the Government to conduct the London to South West & South Wales Multi-Modal Study.
Walking & cycling -- does common neglect equal common interests?
Walking and cycling are beginning to receive more attention in transport planning in Great Britain. But although they are generally described with similar attributes, they often receive differing treatment in the public and political arena. This article explores the main differences as well as similarities between the modes and explains why these should be seen as mutual strengths enabling them to grow together to each other's (and everyone else's) mutual benefit.
The Safety & Security issues of Women drivers & passengers
Andrée Woodcock, James Lenard & Ruth Welsh
This research was commissioned by the Mobility Unit of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions to address the in-car safety and security needs of women drivers and their passengers. The research was multifaceted. It sought to establish whether cars which have been designed and tested around male manikins and anthropometry were less protective to female drivers and their passengers; whether such vehicles met the requirements of the growing number of female users, and the experiences of female drivers on the road. Lastly we considered means of disseminating our results to a wide audience, through the use of posters and web sites (see Woodcock, Galer Flyte & Garner, 2001). The research presented here considers the first two issues and concluding with recommendations for future policy.
The effects of car sharing on travel behaviour: analysis of CarSharing Portland's first year
Richard Katzev, David Brook & Matthew Nice
A review and analysis of the mobility behaviour of CarSharing Portland (CSP) members during its first year of operation. Comprehensive surveys and one-week trip diaries were administered before individuals joined the organisation and at the end of the first year. A periodic need for a vehicle was their principal reason for joining CSP. The effect of membership in CSP on overall vehicle travel was either no change or a slight increase in VMT. However, members reported an increasing frequency of bus trips, walking and cycling. In addition 26% sold their personal vehicle and 53% were able to avoid purchasing one. These results were discussed in terms of the psychology of the car sharing experience and how membership in the organisation affected travel behaviour.
Pedestrian flow characteristics at an intermodal transfer terminal in Calcutta
A.K. Sarkar & K.S.V.S. Janardhan
In recent years, walking as a transportation mode has gained recognition as a basic building block in urban design. It is highly suitable for a certain kinds of journeys. To encourage walking and to make it more safe, convenient and attractive, the physical facilities must be available to support the physiological and social needs of pedestrians. It is important, therefore, that the flow characteristics of pedestrians be understood properly to aid the planning and design of facilities. Keeping in view the above facts, a study has been conducted at an inter-modal transfer terminal in the Calcutta Metropolitan District, and relationships of speed, density, flow and space have been developed. The paper also discusses the problems of pedestrian movement in Calcutta and suggests a few policy decisions for providing safe, convenient and pleasant movement.
Download this issue here: wtpp07.2.pdf
Cycling in African Cities: Status & Prospects
A low level of personal mobility characterises urban transport in most cities of Sub-Saharan Africa. One of the major reason for this is that the majority of the residents of these cities cannot afford the cost of public transport where it is available. Cycling, which would have provided a solution to the mobility problem, has not been acknowledged by the planning authorities in these cities. As a consequence there are no facilities for cycling and as a result it plays an insignificant role in the provision of mobility. Poor traffic safety discourages individuals who can afford a bicycle from cycling and this explains the difference in cycling between the large and medium-sized cities in Africa.
National symbolism undermining healthy transport policies? A case study of Canberra's V8 Supercar race
Paul J. Tranter & Timothy J. Keeffe
The paper examines the public health implications of the GMC 400 V8 Supercar Race held in Canberra, in June 2000 and 2001. The race was held in and around the Parliamentary Zone, a place of powerful national symbolism. The race had a number of potential impacts on public health and on the development of healthy transport policy. Of particular importance were the impacts on -- and the messages about -- road safety. The impacts of the race can be examined at a number of spatial scales. At the local scale, disruptions to healthier and safer transport modes such as walking, cycling and public transport, are considered. At the national scale, the issues of the glorification of the car (and a particularly 'unhealthy' type of car), as well as the glorification of speed and the combination of alcohol advertising and high-speed racing emerge. These issues may also have an impact at the international scale, considering the television coverage of the race. The location of the race in Australia's Parliamentary Zone, considered by many as the political and symbolic heart of the nation, adds legitimacy and official sanction to the potentially health-damaging impacts of the race.
Twisted Logic in the upside-down world of 'road safety' ideology: A case study of 'The Safety & Security issues of Women drivers & passengers'
A response to 'The Safety & Security issues of Women drivers & passengers' by Woodcock et al. in World Transport Policy & Practice 7.1. This article is questioned for its use of an apparently feminist approach to safety which conflates women's rights with motoring privileges; it is specifically criticised for identifying car occupant safety with vehicle crashworthiness. This critique then moves on to show how the article should not simply be contested, but that its main importance is as a text to be seen as a case study in 'road safety' ideology. This leads to a demonstration of certain assumptions which function in a destructive fashion, characterised by an inversion of the road safety policy required for a more civilised transport system.
Determinants of air travel growth
Stefan K. Nielsen
This article identifies the main determinants of air travel growth focusing on drivers and impeders. Major drivers of air travel growth are increased personal incomes combined with reduced real airfares, the latter furthered by airline marketing strategies and government subsidies to the aviation industry. Other drivers are increasing market liberalisation and globalisation of manufacture, trade, personal relations and economic and political systems, as well as changing geography, population growth and migration. Working structures and changing age- and wealth distribution in the population also play a role, as well as changes in social norms and values and individual needs, wants and desires. Future policies for impeding air travel growth may aim at reducing growth in personal incomes while increasing real airfares, limiting the expansion of aviation's socio-technical system and setting up per capita quotas for air travel. Promotion of alternative lifestyles, as well as restrictions to globalisation and market forces may also prove useful in the longer term.
Liveable Neighbourhoods is a new policy of the Western Australian Government to combat the high car dependency, lack of public transport and poor walking conditions in suburban sprawl. This paper gives an overview of the urban design and structuring principles behind the policy.
Liveable Neighbourhoods is based on an urban structure built with walkable, mixed-use neighbourhoods. These neighbourhoods cluster around a town centre to give sufficient population catchment to support main street retail, office and community facilities, and support public transit.
A traditional movement network in Liveable Neighbourhoods overcomes the disconnected street system, lack of footpaths, unsafe routes and long walking distances to most destinations that characterise conventional suburban developments. Liveable Neighbourhoods encourages people to walk by providing an environment of high pedestrian amenity and efficiency, and one that is stimulating, legible and safe for pedestrians.
Liveable Neighbourhoods recognises the complexity of daily movement patterns and the need to make pedestrian trips as short and pleasant as possible. The primary pedestrian network is the street system, which is detailed to support pedestrian movement.
Walking as a local transport modal choice in Adelaide
A glance at transport statistics for Australia indicates that 'walking' as a transport option is a relatively insignificant form of urban travel. For medium to long, intra-urban trips, this is probably indeed the case. This will continue so long as the morphology of Australian cities is predominantly shaped by the needs of motorised transport.
This paper provides an overview of the extent of walking as a transport option, at least in the journey to work. The characteristics of walking as a transport mode are discussed, which is important in setting the context of the walking permeability indices that are developed in the subsequent section. The walking permeability indices are the principal form of analysis used in assessing how well the City of Adelaide and the inner city residential development of Garden East and the new middle distant northern suburb of Mawson Lakes are in catering to walking as a local transport modal choice. The final section examines strategies to facilitate walking in Adelaide.
Download this issue here: wtpp07.3.pdf
Promoting cycling in the U.K. -- Problems experienced by the practitioners
During the first half of 2001 a series of seminars were held in eleven English local authorities as part of a project to promote the U.K. National Cycling Strategy. More than 700 delegates attended these seminars, about half of which were local authority officers with some responsibility for cycling. Presentations at the seminars were chosen so that some focused on conveying the core messages of the National Cycling Strategy, while others described local case studies. Opportunities were provided through discussion sessions to exchange information amongst the delegates and to seek their opinions on the main barriers to increasing the use of cycling in the U.K. Amongst many issues raised was the continued poor quality of cycling infrastructure, which was linked, inter alia, to both a lack of suitably trained professionals and a low priority given to cycling by local politicians and senior officers.
Local Transport Plans, Planning Policy Guidance & Cycling policy: Issues & future challenges
This article assesses current policies for the promotion of cycling, especially in urban areas and with particular reference to implementation of the latest official advice from the UK Government in its Guidance on Full Local Transport Plans and its revised guidance on planning and land use policy, Planning Policy Guidance Note 13.
Planning for more cycling: the York experience bucks the trend
Experience in York has shown that it is possible to promote cycle use whilst also improving cyclists' safety. Key lessons which have been learnt are that isolated cycle facilities will not affect people's modal choice on their own. However, sustained investment at a realistic level can bring about significant changes in people's travel habits. The cycle network needs to be based on strategic planning to ensure that coherent, continuous routes are created. Security has also been shown to be important -- both in terms of personal security and safe parking facilities.
Finally, 'soft' measures to promote cycling can complement the physical infrastructure. Partnerships with other organisations have proved very worthwhile to enhance the overall image of cycling. Relating cycling to health, in particular, has allowed the City of York to move towards a very positive message which people can relate to their own lifestyle aspirations.
Guidelines for a safety audit of bikeway systems
Cameron T. Matwie & John F. Morrall
It is noted at the outset that the bicycle is recognised as a legitimate transportation mode, especially in the context of sustainable transportation systems. However, bicycle facilities need to provide the cyclists using them with a high level of safety. Unexpected, abrupt changes in horizontal and vertical geometry and cross-section are hazardous to cyclists. Such hazards can be minimised though a safety audit or at the initial design phase by following good design practice.
A safety audit of the existing bicycle facilities in Calgary, Alberta was undertaken as a case study to determine the relative safety of different bicycle facilities. With the many km of bicycle facilities in the City of Calgary there are many examples of safe and unsafe situations, and locations where mitigation measures have improved safety.
Lateral and vertical clearance, sight distance, grades, pathway/street furniture, lighting, directional signage, pathway/roadway width, and ride quality were reviewed as part of the audit. These design elements formed the basis of the field investigation that was undertaken as part of the safety audit. Each of these design elements has the potential to either increase or decrease the safety to a cyclist depending on the situation.
The principles and guidelines of what constitutes a comprehensive safety audit for bikeway systems are outlined. Examples of good practice and unsafe situations along with potential applications of the safety audit process for bikeway systems are also discussed.
Translating cycling policy into cycling practice
Further insights are offered into how UK cycling policy, as promoted in the National Cycling Strategy, can be translated into cycling practice, for example through encouraging a modal shift from the motor car to cycling. The extent of UK motor car dependency, the viability of cycling as an alternative transport mode, and possible measures to achieve a modal shift are discussed. Segments of the population who cycle or who might be encouraged to cycle are considered, incorporating Scottish Household Survey data for Edinburgh.
Another look at Germany's bicycle boom: implications for local transportation policy & planning strategy in the U.S.A.
There are conflicting views regarding the substantial growth in cycling in Germany since the early 1970s. Pucher argues that it is almost entirely attributable to public policy. A number of German experts would give planning and public policy far less credit, and attribute this growth in cycling instead to other factors, such as urban congestion, the oil shocks of the 1970s, environmental awareness, and changes in urban form. The article that follows is an attempt to explain the two diverging viewpoints and draw conclusions that nevertheless prove useful in the quest to promote cycling as a legitimate mode of transport. It calls for a more involved type of strategic planning that, in addition to traditional policy measures, seeks to build political consensus and power by strengthening community groups and coalitions.
A Nicaraguan Street Clash
The provision of transport services in León, Nicaragua is becoming increasingly difficult for the city
government in the face of rapid urbanisation and a shrinking public budget. Some citizens have responded by turning to the bicycle to meet their transportation needs. But the city government promotes automobile-dependent urban development whilst penalising bicyclists with a tax and license requirement. City officials have failed to meet their purpose of eliminating dangerous traffic congestion, in part because of misguided policies and plans, and in part because bicyclists have resisted government authority.
Shanghai: The greatest cycling city in the world?
Annemarie de Boom, Richard Walker & Rob Goldup
As China opens up to the world, enjoying 10% GDP growth per year, and experiencing the first stage of the development of mass car ownership, can it and will it retain the high levels of cycle use which characterise its great cities?
Earlier this year, the authors spent several months in the city of Shanghai, as part of the Colin Buchanan & Partners (CBP) study team reviewing the transport policies of the Shanghai Master Plan for 2020 on behalf of Xu Kuangdi, the Mayor of Shanghai, and drafting his Transport White Paper. Establishing that cycling has an important role to play in the world-class transport system planned for the new World City of Shanghai was a key challenge for the study team.
Download this issue here: wtpp07.4.pdf
The headloading & footpath economy -- walking in Sub-Saharan Africa
Walking dominates all measures of personal and household-level goods movement in Sub-Saharan African societies, but this is rarely evident in planned interventions in their transport systems. The capture of investment by elites is most apparent in cities without a network of safe walkways, yet where only a minority drive cars. Attitude is the most plausible explanation why walking is ignored, buttressed by a sense that it has little economic importance. The persistence of poverty with its obvious relation to immobility, and declining environmental conditions in cities, are the most likely issues to force a reassessment of the role of walking among decision makers.
Pedestrian infrastructure in the city transport system: a case study of Delhi
Walking and non-motorised vehicles are the principal modes of transport for most of the urban poor in Asian cities. For a large number of people even subsidised public transport (buses) and low cost bicycles are beyond their means, so that a significant proportion of the population falls into the category of 'captive pedestrians'. Captive pedestrians and public transport users together form the largest group of road users. Yet their need for a safe and convenient infrastructure continues to be ignored. This has two major impacts on city traffic and travel patterns. Pedestrian and public transport trips as a percentage of total journeys have declined over the years, though they are not expected to disappear in the near future. Pedestrians are present on the roads despite hostile infrastructure designs and motor vehicles are forced to share the road space with them; this creates sub-optimal conditions for all road users. A reversal of this trend is possible. It is possible to create pedestrian, bicycle and public transport friendly urban roads without increasing the right of way of existing arterial roads in Delhi. The guiding principle of such a design is re-assigning priorities to various road users and by meeting the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and public transport commuters in that order.
Copenhagen on foot: thirty years of planning & development
Each year Copenhagen has improved the quality of the inner city walking environment. Walking is seen as a pleasure, not just as a form of transportation. With the improvements in public space new forms of urban recreation have emerged. More and more people spend more time using car-free spaces for a multitude of different activities. Data on these changes of urban culture have been recorded since the 1960s in a series of surveys of the inner city and they show major changes in traffic culture and public life. Since 1968 such activities have quadrupled in the car-free spaces which show a development from just walking to other forms of urban recreation as part of the walking experience.
Making pedestrian facilities more usable & safer for all
Most developed countries are experiencing a change in the age and ability profiles of their populations. There are more older people and more people with a disability that limits major life activities. As people age, they are likely to develop more that one disability, and this can compromise a person's mobility for walking and using transportation systems. Traditionally, transportation systems and other built environments have not been designed to accommodate the needs of all users. The lack of accessible environments presents social and economic costs and issues of independence not only for the fast growing aging and disabled population but for most of society.
There are many competing interests when designing and retrofitting infrastructure, and political will is essential to ensure that accessibility is part of policy, planning, design and construction.
Walking & health: making the links
Walking is a healthy mode of transport, offering one of the most fruitful areas for collaboration between health and transport professionals for a number of reasons. Firstly, the research evidence on the health benefits of physical activity (including walking) is strong, notably in reducing the public health burden of coronary heart disease and obesity. Secondly, walking has specific benefits to health, and offers great potential to improve public health due to the ease with which it can be integrated into people's daily lives. Thirdly, the health promotion sector has valuable skills and experience to offer in the promotion of walking, which can make for fruitful collaborations. Finally, physical activity and public health professionals are increasingly focusing on environmental determinants of behaviour, leading them to embrace other disciplines including transport planning, town planning, environmental health and architecture. Health professionals are powerful allies for the transport professional aiming to promote walking, and both need to work together to build on the overwhelming evidence of the benefits of our most natural mode of transport.
Prioritising policy & practice to favour walking
A considerable body of research evidence is presented indicating that from social, economic and environmental viewpoints the wider public interest is better served when the proportion of journeys made on foot rather than by motorised means rises. For this reason, it could be expected that transport priorities would favour pedestrians. However, a brief examination of policy and practice influencing the attractions of walking over the years reveals the extent of discrimination against those making journeys in this way. The elements of a strategy aimed at reversing this process is outlined.
Unfulfilled aspirations: a review of the Select Committee Report on Walking in Towns and Cities in Britain
Walking in Britain is an important but currently declining mode of transport. In the winter of 2000-01 the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee of the House of Commons carried out an inquiry into the expenditure, administration and policy of Government towards walking in towns and cities. The resultant Select Committee Report is uncompromisingly critical of the Government, arguing that the attention, action and priority accorded to walking failed to match its importance and were inadequate to reverse the longstanding trend of decline. Amongst many recommendations is a call for a National Walking Strategy. The paper reviews the process of the inquiry and discusses the relevance of the outcomes to the contemporary walking environment in Britain.
A traveller in time: Understanding deterrents to walking to work
This paper derives from doctoral research funded by the Centre for Alternative and Sustainable Transport (CAST) and Staffordshire University. It reports on the qualitative aspect of research into attitudes towards walking to work of a group of public sector employees within Staffordshire. The key geographical concept of space/time is central to decisions about walking to work and this is particularly true for those who currently travel to work by car. In the past, the specific literature on deterrents to walking has treated time in a narrow and mechanistic fashion, which assumes an unquestioned commodified view of time of equal measure to all. This paper contributes to understanding walking as a potential mode of commuter transport through identifying a range of complex and interrelated temporal constraints that influence people's attitudes to, and decisions about, walking to work.
Deconstructing the future: assessing new initiatives in transport, including demand management & walking
Transport strategies have changed direction very substantially in the past decade or so, but the methodology of evaluation has not kept up, often because the linkages between new initiatives and outcomes are not clearly-enough defined or well-enough quantified. In addition, evaluation methodologies, in practice (if not always in theory), often assume that 'more is better' and have difficulty coping with change that includes changes in what we do (activity patterns) as well as how we get there (travel). Our tools favour the status quo and, consequently, new initiatives often have great difficulty in getting funding. The renewed emphasis on walking is a case in point, not only in respect to conventional evaluation issues, but also because of the importance of 'new' issues such as health and fitness, energy economics, greenhouse gas emissions and new dimensions of road trauma.
The paper discusses issues that conventional transport planners are either not aware of or wish would go away, outlines a framework for incorporating these into assessment and evaluation, and presents an application of this framework to the marketing of a pedestrian strategy for Perth.
Increasing walking trips through TravelSmart® Individualised Marketing
Bruce James & Werner Brög
For many years walking as a mode of transport has received very little policy attention from transport planners in the Perth Metropolitan Region of Western Australia. The mode share for walking has declined over the last fifteen years in favour of an increase in car trips. The need to arrest the decline of walking and increase its mode share has been identified as a desirable outcome through a set of transport targets for 2029. The challenge to develop and implement interventions to increase walking without constraining mobility was set by the adoption of these targets.
The development of a predictive technique provided evidence of a behaviour change aligned with the policy direction adopted by the WA Department for Planning and Infrastructure. Testing in the Perth context provided the evidence to justify the large-scale application of Individualised Marketing under the TravelSmart® brand. The results showed that walking captured half of the car trips which converted to walking, cycling and public transport. For the 35,000 people in the City of South Perth, this meant an additional 4800 walk trips per day. This coupled with the 1200 walking legs of public transport trips provided an overall 6000 extra walk trips.
The success of the project has provided the evidence and justification for the expansion of the behaviour change approach to other areas of the Perth Metropolitan Area.
Locking in the pedestrian? The privatised streets of gated communities
Matthew Burke & Christian Sebaly
The paper outlines research into the travel behaviour impacts of residential estates with privatised and barricaded streets known commonly as 'gated communities'. Through investigations at two particular estates in Brisbane, Australia, it is shown that this built form produces small but significant changes in behaviour, especially pedestrian behaviour, that bring into question whether local authorities should permit such developments if they are sincere about encouraging walking as a mode of transport.
The role of public policies in promoting the safety, convenience & popularity of bicycling
In the special issue on bicycling of WTPP (Volume 7, Number 3), Heath Maddox questions the potential of public policies to encourage bicycling. This response to the Maddox critique argues that he seriously misinterpreted the concept of public policy, considering only a small subset of the many policies that can facilitate bicycling. He does not adequately examine the impacts of special cycling facilities. Moreover, Maddox ignores virtually all other transport policies as well as all land-use, housing, taxation, education, training, law enforcement and public relations policies. This counterpoint article re-emphasises the crucial importance of a wide range of public policies to increase the safety, convenience and attractiveness of cycling. In order to generate the necessary political support for such policies, this article recommends focussing on the enormous public health benefits that would derive from increased cycling.
Letter in response to the special issue on cycling, Volume 7, Number 3 (2001)
John Street responds to the special issue on cycling by presenting the pedestrian viewpoint.