WTPP Abstracts: Volume 6 (2000)
Download this issue here: wtpp06.1.pdf
Traffic reduction versus development pressures: Sustainable transport in Liverpool, United Kingdom
Paul Tranter & Peter Lonergan
This paper examines sustainable transport in Liverpool, in the context of broader changes in societal awareness and in Government policy. After a brief discussion of the concept of sustainable transport and the role of traffic reduction within this concept, the paper briefly evaluates changes in national transport policy. It then focuses on Liverpool, examining policies directed at sustainable transport and the barriers to achieving this goal. The paper concludes with a discussion of the importance of Government support and leadership on sustainable transport.
The Ten Myths of Automobile Dependence
Peter Newman & Jeff Kenworthy
The myths about automobile dependence are analysed and dismissed as no longer having the inevitability they once had. The myths relate to wealth, climate, space, age, health and social problems, rural life styles, the road lobby, land developers, traffic engineering and town planning praxis. Only the tenth one seems to continue to have an inevitability due to entrenched practices which should now be updated and replaced.
'Moving together' -- on shaping automobilisation
This article draws attention to how automobilisation as a mobility paradigm is shaped by social agencies such as national automobile owners associations. The author argues that by means of their reflexivity and their distinct responses to the risks of automobilisation, these clubs contribute to the reproduction of automobilisation. They do so, in that they mediate between the omnipresent expert systems that are embedded in the car and the individual lay user. Hence, these 'car custodians' enable what can be seen as the 'auto-man' -- a hybrid consisting of the car and its user.
Sustainable Development & Transportation: Past Experiences and Future Challenges
Edward Akinyemi & Mark Zuidgeest
The term 'sustainable transportation development' is a combination of sustainable development and transportation. As a concept, it involves the application of the sustainable development idea to transportation systems. This paper deals with how the concept of sustainability is currently used and how it should be used in the future engineering of transportation systems. First, the current definitions of sustainable development are reviewed and it is shown that there is a need for definition and criteria that can be used by engineers for planning, design and operation of transportation systems. Second, the current approaches of sustainability in transportation planning are reviewed and discussed. Subsequently, it is proposed that the focus should be on a sustainably developed transportation system, i.e. a system that meets the people's needs, with the available or affordable environmental, financial and social resources. Finally, it is shown that a sustainably developed transportation problem is basically a mathematical problem.
Sustainable Transport -- A Comparative Analysis of Israel, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
Pnina O. Plaut & Deborah F. Shmueli
In recent years 'sustainability' has become an important issue in policy discussion and decision making, especially with regard to transportation. Here the role of 'sustainability' and the forms of its incorporation into transportation policy is surveyed and compared for Israel, the Netherlands and the U.K. In particular, comparisons are made and discussed across these countries based on several factors, including existence of plans (strategic and integrative), specific objectives and targets, institutional arrangements, environmental impact assessment processes, implementation tools, and political and public commitment and involvement. The comparisons highlight two major tenets of the Israeli system that present obstacles to the establishment of transportation and environmental linkages. The first involves the lack of transparency in the planning process and the corresponding dearth of political and public participation, consensus and commitment to plans. The second is the existing institutional structure.
Download this issue here: wtpp06.2.pdf
Sustainably Distributed? An environmental critique of the UK Government's 1999 White Paper on Distribution
Francis M Vanek
The recent UK Government White Paper entitled "Sustainable Distribution: A Strategy" is reviewed from the perspective of achieving sustainability. After highlighting the content of the strategy which pertains to reducing environmental impact, two shortcomings are identified and discussed: (1) the lack of a long-term strategy for reducing environmental impact, and (2) the failure to address spatial spreading of freight transport patterns. Additional long-term policy measures and an expanded list of sustainability indicators are then proposed.
Mobility & Accessibility: the yin & yang of planning
The concepts 'accessibility' and 'mobility' are central to urban and transport planning, and although they are often used interchangeably, they convey fundamentally different concepts. For example, mobility, especially when excessive, can have a negative connotation, whereas accessibility is always seen as making a positive contribution to a community. In investigating the relationship between mobility and accessibility it emerges that planning policies which favour the one, act against the other, and the two can be seen as opposites.
The Vasco da Gama Bridge on the Tagus Estuary: A paradigm of bad decision making, but good post-evaluation
João Joanaz de Melo
The Vasco da Gama bridge over the Tagus Estuary was one of the most polemic projects ever built in Portugal and indeed in the European Union. Benefiting from significant funding from the Cohesion Fund, the project failed to uphold its main declared objectives (decongesting the old bridge and providing a north-south link around Lisbon), and its location was the worst of three alternatives regarding land management, nature conservation, transportation system and cost. It was nevertheless forwarded by the will of the very powerful Portuguese Ministry of Public Works (against opinions of almost everybody else), aided by the unwillingness of the European Commission to withdraw financing. However, the public outrage raised around the project both in Portugal and in Europe, not only for the sloppy decision but also for illegal impacts during construction, led to several stringent control and compensatory measures, unprecedented in Portugal and rare in Europe.
Pedestrian priority planning principles
Despite the good intentions of all involved in the planning, design and development of transportation infrastructure, it has generated problems. Some have contributed to international concerns about environment, health and sustainability. Others generate significant negative impacts and impose tremendous costs on communities.
In the context of transportation, the significance of the interaction between facility users and the site, space, speed and surface characteristics of the particular facility cannot be over-stated. The respective influences of these criteria are paramount to the safety outcomes of all users.
Australia has adopted the movement of people and goods in lieu of vehicles as the fundamental transport infrastructure design/development criterion. Its support and implementation will require planning that considers all criteria and characteristics in a manner somewhat different to that adopted in the past. If it doesn't, nothing will change.
Let's Bike -- The 10 Point Pedalling Action Programme to support cycling
At the 11th VeloCity Conference in Graz and Maribor, in April 1999, experts, lobbyists and users from all over the world exchanged their experiences and developed ideas. As the potential of cycling has not been exhausted in any country, a 10 Point Pedalling Action Programme was devised. It includes basic requirements for the greater promotion of the bicycle in policy development and society. Image and use of the bicycle must be improved and necessary infrastructure must be provided.
Download this issue here: wtpp06.3.pdf
Urban hysteria & panic in the streets -- the British fuel blockade September 2000 -- a social interpretation
Alan Hallsworth & Rodney Tolley
arrests the man or woman,
who steals the goose from off the common,
But lets the greater villain loose --
who steals the common from the goose.
The fuel blockade of September 2000 that caused chaos on Britain's roads can be interpreted in many ways. One analysis was that it led otherwise rational individuals into perverse and selfish actions -- notably in respect of fuel hoarding. This paper, conversely, suggests that the field of Game Theory offers clear explanations for such actions. This well developed field could have been drawn upon to predict the behaviours -- and to devise counter-strategies.
Car Sharing for Business: The Aachen region pilot project
Oscar Reutter & Susanne Böhler
Car sharing is popular in Germany for leisure and shopping trips. This pilot project in Aachen sought to assess the demand among businesses and develop a car sharing provision. This article summarises the results and advises how such a business will succeed.
The Delft Low-Cost Mobility Statement
Jan Herman Koster
From 21-23 June 2000, some 80 experts gathered at IHE Delft to participate in the World Bank/Velomondial 2000/IHE Delft Expert Group Meeting on Low-Cost Mobility in Sub-Sahara African Cities. The group consisted of politicians, administrators and professionals from African national, provincial and local government levels, NGO representatives, staff from External Support Agencies (ESAs), researchers, consultants and other independent experts. The Proceedings of the Meeting contain the 'Delft Low-Cost Mobility Statement' to which the participants, as individuals, in the Meeting have agreed and committed themselves.
Social change & Leisure mobility
Social change, leisure interests, available time and access to transport greatly influence leisure mobility. However, it is relatively unresearched. This paper sets out to clarify the subject and presents research on leisure mobility. Some results of a survey on leisure mobility in Cologne are discussed and some remarks on potential comparative European and North American research are made.
Professional training needs for sustainable transport: a case study of those responsible for planning for cycling and walking in the UK
This paper discusses the results of a survey in the UK to assess the training needs for those involved in the planning, promotion and delivery of policies to encourage walking and cycling. It describes the background to the study it commissioned to help assess the needs of those already working in this field and the lessons arising for improving training, its conclusions and implications.
Download this issue here: wtpp06.4.pdf
The outside world as a learning environment: Perspectives from child-oriented town planning
The childhood experienced by today's children is largely one that is controlled and administered from outside. Town and transport planning play a decisive role in this process. Even plans that call themselves 'child-friendly' often just create reservations for children instead of networks and facilities that give them freedom and independent mobility. The neglect of children's interests in town planning is harming their social development deeply.
Modal Practices: From the rationales behind car & public transport use to coherent transport policies. Case studies in France & Switzerland
There is a dichotomy between car use and public transport use. It very much is a case of either one or the other. Policies which seek to appease car users undermine the potential of public transport, not just by delaying it or inconveniencing it, but by simultaneously encouraging car use and alienating the attractiveness of public transport. Policy makers must decide clearly whether they support the viability and vitality of compact town centres with public transport-friendly policies or sprawling development. The two are mutually exclusive.
Demand characteristics & co-operation strategies for the bicycle & railway transport chain
This paper includes the results of one of the first studies to examine the structure and potential of transportation users taking bicycles on suburban and regional trains in Berlin and the Brandenburg region. Recommendations are made on how to grow this lucrative sector of integrated transport which can provide a genuine alternative to car ownership.
Bürgerbahn statt Börsenbahn -- Über den Bankrott der Verkehrspolitik
Johannes Hauber, Andreas Kleber, Heiner Monheim, Jürgen Rochlitz & Winfried Wolf
This paper, "Citizens' Railway not Stock Exchange railway -- the bankruptcy of transport politics" delves into the restructuring of the German railway for profit. It tracks the financial and political incompetence, expediency and mismanagement of a national asset. While the national audit office was prevented from examining the balance sheet, behind the scenes, the reality of the state of the accounts left a lot to be desired.
Despite our belief that the German Railways were a well-run, efficient machine, the truth was somewhat different. Since World War 2, some 200,000 km of new roads have been built while whereas rail lines were reduced by 15,000 km and more than 6000 stations were closed. Meanwhile, massive investment was made in high speed rail lines suited to journeys of 350+ km, yet 90% of journeys are less than 50 km and the average long distance journey is a mere 230 km. It was hoped that the Green--SPD government would introduce a sensible transport policy. Thus far they have failed.
Sustainable Mobility: How to move more goods from road to rail -- a comparison of Germany & Britain
Over the last three decades freight transport by road has increased nearly three-fold in the European Union. This has caused serious environmental harm. Following the Kyoto Conference in December 1997, the EU accepted binding targets to reduce CO2 emissions. Achieving these targets in the freight sector will involve changing the way goods are transported and changing the modes used for goods transport. In Britain and Germany rail was privatised just prior to the election of new centre-left governments. This paper examines what the different actors (politicians, freight operators} in the two countries can learn from each other. It compares the distribution models of each and will demonstrate what steps need to be taken to develop more sustainable transport solutions.