WTPP Abstracts: Volume 5 (1999)
Download this issue here: wtpp05.1.pdf
Car-Free Cities - Myth or Possibility? Exploring the boundaries of sustainable urban transport
The paper uses case-study material from a number of North European and UK cities to explore the types of initiatives that are being considered under the 'car-free city' movement. These are analysed using models of radical and conservative sustainable development. The paper suggests that even in municipalities actively claiming to be pursuing a 'green' agenda, only a very conservative interpretation of sustainable development is being implemented. This can, in part, be explained by exploring the changing role and function of the local state in late-modern society and, in particular, its heightened role in pursuing local economic development within a global marketplace. This, it is argued, places substantial limitations on the nature and extent of sustainable urban transport policies that are being, and can be, implemented, with important social and environmental consequences.
Sustaining Africa's rural road networks: The asset management approach
Many rural roads in Africa are 'returning to the bush' because of inadequate maintenance. This is not helped by development loans which encourage construction of new roads and rehabilitation of existing infrastructure rather than better value ongoing maintenance. Much of the problem lies in the technical arguments put to decision makers. Here we see the argument put in a way that non-technical people can understand them.
Techniques for planning local networks: Developing a walking strategy
Les Lumsdon & Rodney Tolley
Walking as a mode of transport has declined in importance due, in part, to motorisation. There is a recognition among transport professionals in the UK that this needs to be redressed. The key in developing such strategies is their adoption and implementation at a local level. An outline model walking strategy is provided and there is a case study of the Lothian Region's strategy.
Urban cycling options in the free market
The City Council in Auckland, New Zealand, has known since the late 1970s that apparently marginal activities such as cycling and walking can significantly benefit the urban environment. Despite this, lack of foresight has left the city with restricted capacity to take advantage of these low-tech options. However, the full implementation of a proposed national transport model may see the payment of ecological, social and economic costs of private vehicle by users. This may provide an impetus for a better balance between transport options for Auckland.
Prospects for sustainable transportation in the Pacific Northwest: a comparison of Vancouver, Seattle, and Portland.
Preston L. Schiller & Jeff Kenworthy
A variety of transportation and land use performance indicators and trends are examined for the major cities of the Pacific Northwest region of North America. To the casual observer these cities may appear more similar than different. However, the data examined reveal substantial differences between Vancouver and its neighbours to the south, Seattle and Portland, especially in regards to population density, motorisation, transit use and the rate of growth in car use.
The TGV Effect: A Potential opportunity for reconciling sustainability with aviation
Judith Patterson & Anthony Perl
The aviation industry is presently in a stage of rapid growth. Soon, however, increasing urban air pollution, rising greenhouse gas concentrations, regulatory policies, and finite oil reserves will create constraints on the expansion of the industry. High speed rail journeys of under three hours may become an alternative for aviation. A switch to high speed rail for short haul journeys could also free room for expansion of long haul markets for aviation thus obviating the need for airport infrastructure expansion. To explore this hypothesis, the impact of high speed rail on French civil aviation is examined. Modal substitution and intermodal complimentarily may be part of the solution for making aviation economically and environmentally sustainable.
Volume 5, Number 2 (1999) Back to the top
Download this issue here: wtpp05.2.pdf
City Logistics: A Contribution to Sustainable Development? -- A Contribution to the Discussion on Solutions to Freight Transport Problems in Urban Areas
The increasing amount of freight transport by road in urban areas of industrialised countries induces serious social and economic impacts through local and global environmental deterioration. Sustainable development demands that these effects be reduced substantially. The concept of City Logistics seems to offer an ideal method to decrease the number of trucks without harming economic performance. However, its current use is restricted in a number of ways. In particular, large-scale implementation of City Logistics would require different economic incentives for private actors.
Where is Stranraer now? Space-time convergence re-visited
This paper revisits the concept of space-time convergence in the context of data on InterCity rail journey times in the UK between 1914 and 1998. The paper concludes that the concept of convergence needs to be considerably refined in both historical and geographical senses in order to fully represent long-run trends in the adoption of new transport technologies. The paper considers the geographical and policy implications of the quest for speed, particularly for the role of London.
An appraisal of decreased depth of production on traffic demand: development of a model
Helmut Holzapfel & Richard Vahrenkamp
In recent discussions about future traffic growth in Europe, it is generally assumed that rates of increase, especially of road freight traffic, are overestimated. Sometimes it is vigorously denied that the ever increasing division of labour with just-in-time production processes has an influence on transport worth mentioning at all. These points are addressed in an attempt to seek an understanding of the dynamics of the division of labour and the growth of traffic. A theoretical model is produced which lead to deductions.
Scenarios for Transboundary Air Pollutants from the Transport Sector in Europe
Gary Haq & Peter Bailey
Scenarios for the European transport sector are used to examine the impact on transboundary air pollution of a range of vehicle emission standards, technologies and demand management measures and to produce estimates of national emissions in the UN/ECE region. This paper demonstrates the possible reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds which could be achieved using different policy instruments.
The Effects of Strategic Network Changes on Traffic
Steve Purnell, Jillian Beardwood & John Elliott
The Department of Transport's Counsel at the Public Inquiry into a section of the North Circular Road in 1985 stated that "... the proper way to advance the [GLC] case is to put their evidence before the Secretary of State, to put their evidence before the Government and say 'This is the result of our research; your policy for roads should be amended accordingly -- at least it should be reconsidered on the basis of this evidence'." In response to this recommendation the GLC presented this paper to the DoT. The Secretary of State, Nicholas Ridley, responded: "No attempt has been made either to assess the benefits which additional traffic might bring to the community as a whole or to evaluate its adverse effects" ... "we have no intention of building urban motorways" ... "the [Government does not] disregard the views of Londoners".
The paper was presented to the Transport Committee of the GLC on 10th July 1985. The Committee recommended its publication on a wide basis. Soon after, the GLC was abolished despite approximately three-quarters of Londoners canvassed being opposed.
This paper was tested and accepted by the Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment in their 1994 report "Trunk Roads and the Generation of Traffic". The Government accepted the SACTRA report.
Download this issue here: wtpp05.3.pdf
Why car sharing has not, cannot and will never work
Road map and compass
A Short History of Carsharing in the 90s
Susan Shaheen, Dan Sperling & Conrad Wagner
Case study of the diffusion process
Carsharing? An alternative vision and a bit of history
CarSharing -- The Key to Combined Mobility
Carsharing in the Netherlands
Sweden -- getting mobilised
Who are the early adopters of car sharing? (Denmark)
John Thøgersen & Lise Norre
Praxitèle: Station car experiment in France
Marie-Hélène Massot, Jean-François Allouche & Michel Parent
CarLink -- A smart carsharing system
The Bremen approach to carsharing
Michael Glotz-Richter with Tom Rye
Edinburgh City Car Club Goes Live
Tom Rye, John Saunders, Nazan Çelikel & Wafaa Saleh
Carsharing in Latin America
Chris Zegras & Ralph Gakenheimer
Carsharing as a socio-technical learning system
Sylvia Harms & Bernhard Truffer
How one family kicked the car habit
Carsharing: A survey of preferences
Carsharing benefits to consumers and society
So you want to start a car sharing service
How car-sharing will help re-establish the neighbourhood economy?
Carsharing kit -- Why wait for it to come to you?
Recognising the revolutionary nature of car sharing
Elizabeth, Reynolds, Kevin McLaughlin & Ronald W. Neville
What happens next? (carsharing)
Annex A: The process behind this (carsharing) report
Annex B: Austria -- CASUAL carsharing manual & comments
Annex C: Caisse-Commune, Paris -- Progress report [in French]
Annex D: Caisse-Commune, Paris -- Progress report [machine translation]
Annex E: Praxitèle, le concept, l'experimentation [in French]
Annex F: Praxitèle, demonstration results [machine translation]
Download this issue here: wtpp05.4.pdf
Road Transport, Environment & Social Equity in Israel in the new millennium
Israel stands at a crossroads, culturally, socially and environmentally. It is choosing to pursue the same car-based land use and transportation model which has failed to deliver social cohesion in Europe and the U.S.A. This paper identifies the present-day trends that are reshaping Israel's physical space at the turn of the millennium. It then explores the impact of these transport trends on Israeli society.
The Status of Transportation in the West Bank
Hanna Maoh, MSc, & Jad Isaac, PhD.
This paper examines the basic features of the transportation system in the West Bank, from a Palestinian perspective, and discusses the dilemmas, both present-day and future, that must be confronted now by planners as Palestinians gain control of West Bank land resources, and create a contiguous political entity where transportation and land use planning will be possible. The paper presents basic data from new research on travel modes, trip destinations and motorisation that until recently was unavailable on Palestinian travel. It describes the factors contributing to increasing congestion and air pollution in the region, particularly in Palestinian urban areas. The legacy of the Israeli-Palestinian political conflict on the system's development is explored, particularly the profound impacts induced by the widespread Israeli construction of 'bypass roads' linking West Bank Jewish settlements. Finally, the paper discusses the potential for creating a more sustainable transport and land use system in the future, in light of problems such as land scarcity and increasingly high population densities.
Response to parking restrictions: Results & policy implications of a stated preference survey in Haifa
Parking and its management are key tools in managing traffic. The key is to balance the conflicting interests of business who see parking as vital for customers and commuters who cannot as easily switch destinations or journey times. This paper presents the results of a stated preference survey of drivers in Carmel Center.
Exit or Voice: the Prospects for public transport user representation in Israel
There is a persistent crisis in the Israeli public transport system. While the government's agenda for recovery is to introduce more competition to the main service providers, this may not necessarily guarantee an improved quality of service for the user. Currently, the only way in which users can express dissatisfaction at declining quality of service is through 'exit' -- abandoning the service, most often in favour of private car use. This article sets out to introduce another option neglected so far by service providers and government alike: granting 'voice' to users via representation in the decision-making and operation of public transport services. To this end, several examples from abroad are brought to bear on the Israeli scene, and possible scenarios for change are considered.
Do telecommunications reduce industrial uses of transportation?: An International Comparison of Israel, Canada, U.S.A. & Europe
Pnina O. Plaut
There is a long-running debate about the relationship between transportation and communications. One issue is whether the two services behave as substitutes or as complements. This is important because substitution implies that advanced telecommunications induce a reduction in the need for transportation and the seriousness of transportation system problems. While most research has examined the relationships for commuters and individual travellers, the bulk of transportation and communications services are in fact used by industry.
It is shown that the pattern of complementarity detected in earlier research for Europe is also found in non-European locations, despite their very different conditions. This indicates that complementarity is robust and not dependent on a specific set of geographic conditions, infrastructure or level of development. All of this implies that expectations regarding the ability of telecommunications to reduce travel as well as the negative impacts and environmental costs of transportation may be unfounded.