WTPP Abstracts: Volume 4 (1998)
Volume 4, Number 1 (1998) wtpp04.1.pdf
Dutch Transport Policy: From Rhetoric to Reality
Gary Haq and Machiel Bolhuis
The Dutch have gained an international reputation for developing coherent policy plans for transport, environment and physical planning. This paper examines the rhetoric of Dutch transport policy and assesses what is actually being achieved in practice. Progress made in achieving the main targets on mobility, accessibility and environmental protection are discussed. The growth in vehicle kilometres of the freight sector is identified as an important problem that the Dutch will need to deal with in order to achieve all the targets adopted in transport and environmental policy.
Urban Transport and Equity: the case of São Paulo
Urban transport provision, accident rates and accessibility in São Paulo varies tremendously with income, gender and age. Sustainable transport modes are marginalised and high externalities are borne by society. A complete overhaul and reassessment of priorities is required to achieve equity in transport.
Sustainable Transport: -- Some Challenges for Israel and Palestine
With the establishment of Palestine and the continuing peace, there is a need to appraise the transport infrastructure and policies of both countries. In particular, will Palestine follow Israel along the road to mass motorisation or will it choose the path to sustainability? Will Israel realise the folly of providing for private transport and seize this unique opportunity?
Can Demand Management Tame the Automobile in a Metropolitan Region?
Spenser Havlick and Peter Newman
Demand management strategies can be an effective tool in taming the automobile. The approaches to demand management in four European cities; Zurich, Freiburg, Stockholm and Copenhagen; and Boulder, Colorado is investigated.
The Impact of Transportation on Household Energy Consumption
Rick Browning, Michele Helou and Paul Larocque
This paper examines transportation energy costs as an integral part of total household energy consumption. A typical suburban household is found to expend more than half its total annual energy budget on operation of household motor vehicles. In contrast, households located in traditional, pedestrian-oriented neighbourhoods are found to use far less energy on transportation. For an instructive contrast, two household budgets were generated using a standard computer program and then compared. With transportation energies included, a household living in an 88 year old 'energy hog' house located in a traditional pedestrian friendly neighbourhood is shown to expend less total annual energy than a suburban household living in a highly energy efficient modern house. Studies and statistics developed in the Pacific Northwest are used as documentation for travel-related behaviour.
From Curitiba to Quito: reserved traffic lanes for public transport as an ecological, an economic and a social policy for cities
Quito's new trolleybus is a great success. It is being expanded already. Consisting of a know-how transfer from a Latin American city, Curitiba (Brazil), to another Latin American city, Quito (Ecuador), these two experiences display a new and original development model. By occupying urban space, and therefore limiting the presence of the car, too often promoted without considering environmental and ecological consequences, the 'reserved structuring axes' for public transport allow high mobility at low cost. The advantages of this model are numerous and could profit many other cities. Today, more and more questions of technological choices are part of the political and ecological debate. Transport is no longer a secondary issue.
Volume 4, Number 2 (1998) wtpp04.2.pdf
Solving the rural transport dilemma: a case study of North Devon
Camilla Swiderska and William R Sheate
This paper attempts to demonstrate how both rising traffic levels and rural travel poverty can be alleviated through the development of a range of small-scale measures. Using North Devon in South West England as a case study, specific issues such as land use, walking and cycling and tourism are examined. A tailor made scenario technique was used to engage local decision-makers and interest groups in a discussion of the appropriate mix of policy solutions. Many of the proposed solutions could be translated to other areas of rural Britain.
Children's Perceptions of Transport Modes: car culture in the classroom?
Julia Meaton & Simon Kingham
Children learn at a very early age how to identify between different modes of transport and which are preferable. Breaking the cycle of car dependency among future generations will not be easy.
Transport Policy in the EU : A Strategy for Sustainable Development?
Sarah Wixey & Steve Lake
This paper seeks to analyse the European Union's approach to policymaking in regard to a particular conception of sustainable development. This assessment is undertaken with regard to EU transport policy and the programme of Trans-European Networks (TENs). It is argued that the strategic considerations at the heart of this programme bear little relation to the stated commitments of the EU to sustainable development in all policy areas. It is argued that sustainable development can only be implemented on a strategic level in policy formulation and not, as seems to be the case with TENs, as an afterthought. The paper concludes by identifying the issue of transport for "need" as a guiding principle in the formulation of a notion of "sustainable mobility".
The Comparative Pollution Exposure of Road Users - A Summary
David Taylor & Malcolm Fergusson
Levels of vehicle-derived pollutants found inside and immediately outside motor vehicles are a cause of concern. It is now generally recognised that car drivers, in particular during rush hour, are travelling through a "tunnel of pollutants" and are exposed to significantly higher levels of pollution than background readings would suggest.
Mortality from vehicular particulate emissions in Tel-Aviv-Jafo
Gary Ginsberg, Aharon Serri, Elaine Fletcher, Dani Koutik, Eric Karsenty & Joshua Shemer
The present level of emissions due to motor vehicles in Israel's second largest city, based on kilometres travelled by vehicle and fuel type, was estimated. By applying co-efficients relating changes in mortality levels with changes in ambient PM10 levels, it is estimated that tailpipe emissions annually cause around 293 premature deaths, primarily among the elderly. This annual toll is in excess of the combined total of deaths whose primary underlying causes were falls, homicides, infectious diseases, suicides, traffic and non-traffic accidents.
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes: Highway Expansions in Search of Meaning
Preston L. Schiller
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes have been widely promoted and constructed in the USA in a belief that the provision of such facilities would improve transit performance, stimulate car and vanpool formation, and improve land use and air quality in urban areas. Critics, especially among environmentalists and alternative transportation advocates, assert that HOV lanes are merely highway expansions which promote more driving, weaken transit, increase air pollution, and facilitate suburban sprawl. This article demonstrates that, generally, HOV lanes are effective only to the extent that they are designed to fill transit and formal carpool program needs. Questions are also raised about the efficacy of HOV criteria, and the extent to which these programs are shaped by ideological and political considerations, rather than by careful analysis and planning.
Car Sharing and Mobility Management: Facing new challenges with technology and innovative business planning
Conrad Wagner & Susan Shaheen
More car sharing organisations are beginning to appear throughout Europe and North America. The use of existing and new technologies in an innovative way offers tremendous opportunities for this industry to grow.
Are automobiles really benign members of the modern family?
Characteristics of the modern family which have not challenged the traditional family paradigm have escaped the notice of researchers and family theorists. Yet children's lives might have been affected to an equal extent, and there may have been negative effects on their health. One such characteristic is the motor car, and its role in the family. This paper outlines the unresearched ways in which the family car might have influenced children's lives, and possibly affected their health.
The Free Lunch Public Transport Centre: A New Zealand case study on how to acquire 2,900 car parking spaces and $0.4 billion in public debt.
Local government's attempt to get a monumental transportation centre for no cost through planning gain has failed in Auckland's CBD. In return for large public debt and increased traffic volumes a transport station is planned for construction at the wrong location and of the wrong size. Worse, a viable small scale terminal has been lost as a consequence. This paper documents the process and suggests lessons on what not to do in transportation interchange planning.
Car-Free Housing in Europe A New Approach to Sustainable Residential Development
Many Europeans are choosing to live without a car. However, they find it difficult to avoid cars and the myriad of problems associated with them. As a result, car-free residential areas are becoming popular. This article explores the different approaches to developing and promoting car-free residential areas in different European cities.
Reduced car ownership as a route to clean transport
There is a correlation between vehicle ownership and vehicle use -- if you own a vehicle you will tend to use it. Discouraging car ownership, therefore, can reduce use. To achieve this, a new policy focus with the following overarching principle is needed ... Every part of every urban region should be developed and organised so that the advantages of not owning a car are at least equal to the advantages of owning a car.
Hungary's M3 Highway: Multilateral Development Banks undercutting each other's objectives
Hungary is pursuing rapid infrastructure development, in some cases, ignoring World Bank advice. The numbers do not add up but, like elsewhere, there is the mistaken belief that roads bring jobs.
Road Project Evaluation Techniques in the United States of America: A Case Study of the Boston Central Artery/Tunnel
Boston's road infrastructure is being expanded by constructing a major new road which was planned before the advent of ISTEA. Because of its scale, the promoters were careful to consult widely and address the fears and worries of as many as possible. As a result, by mitigating those fears, the project is generally welcomed.
From Consistency To Chaos
The National Road Traffic Forecasts are at the heart of British highway planning, and thus at the heart of national transport policy. The forecasts, which are produced by the Highways and Economic Traffic Appraisal, are inconsistent, in some circumstances contradictory, and bear little relation to local conditions. This report discusses in detail the failings of the NRTF 1989. The 1997 update notes, in paragraph 14, that "All forecasts are uncertain".
Volume 4, Number 4 (1998) wtpp04.4.pdf
Mortality reductions as a result of changing to alternative powered vehicles in Tel-Aviv-Jafo
Gary Ginsberg, Aharon Serri, Elaine Fletcher, Tene Moshe, Eric Karsenty & Joshua Shemer
Mortality from tailpipe vehicular emissions alone in Tel-Aviv-Jafo is around ten times that from motor vehicle accidents. Alternative methods to reduce the annual 293 deaths from tailpipe emissions and 10 deaths from refinery or power station emissions are explored.
Exploding myths about the cost of car transport
In Britain it is widely believed that the cost of travelling by car is relatively cheap once the fixed costs of owning a car have been paid, but this is not the case when all mileage-related costs are properly assessed. This false perception distorts the comparison between the cost of travel by car and by public transport. An awareness campaign on this issue, coupled with a taxation shift from car ownership to use, would be an effective and immediately available policy tool to help reduce levels of car use and encourage use of other transport modes, in line with the objectives of the 1998 Transport White Paper.
Sustainable Transport: Edinburgh's Approach
Edinburgh is pursuing an innovatory approach to land use planning and associated transport matters. This mixed-bag approach is at the forefront in the UK and includes car-free residential developments, car sharing schemes, public transport corridors and resident-only parking strategies.
The North American growth fixation & the inner city: Roads of excess
"It's the economy, stupid". Economic growth is the yardstick by which so many governments believe they will be judged, and moderate growth is often considered insufficient. As a result, many slowly-growing cities unthinkingly extend their infrastructure on the assumption of rapid growth that does not materialise. Winnipeg has followed such policies, and the results illustrate their weaknesses. The suburbs sprawl while the inner city decays, and its infrastructure deteriorates. Plans for a rapid transit line that could both relieve congestion and promote more compact development are postponed year after year while new roads and bridges are extended into sparsely-populated fringe areas.
Area-Wide Traffic Management: An Innovative Strategy for Urban Centres
Gavin Davidson, Mark Roseland & Don Alexander
This study compares and contrasts a traditional view of traffic management with an emerging, broad interpretation that supports sustainable development. We then summarise recent research we undertook to examine the feasibility of applying sustainable transportation principles within Vancouver's downtown in a comprehensive programme called area-wide traffic management (AWTM). AWTM attempts to improve transportation efficiency by reducing over-reliance upon motorised vehicles within urban centres.
A Tea for the 21st Century: Sustainable Transportation in the USA
This paper assesses the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, and its benefits, implementation and effects. ISTEA has tremendous potential to lead change towards sustainable transportation. It encourages dialogue between NGOs and administrations, and a holistic approach to transportation planning.