WTPP Abstracts: Volume 3 (1997)
Volume 3, Number 1 (1997) wtpp03.1.pdf
Livable Streets for Pedestrians in Nairobi: The Challenge of Road Traffic Accidents
This paper examines the trend in pedestrian road traffic accident fatalities and injuries in Nairobi from 1977 to 1994. Pedestrians constituted the largest victim group of fatalities and injuries. This state of affairs is largely due to the neglect of pedestrian needs in transport planning and practice in Nairobi. The key to improving pedestrian safety in Nairobi lies in a re-orientation of transport policy from motor-vehicle fixation to pedestrian promotion. There is an urgent need for serious thought to be given to a meaningful pedestrianisation process in Nairobi.
Developing strategies to meet the transport needs of the urban poor in Ghana
E.A. Kwakye, P.R. Fouracre, D. Ofosu-Dorte
An efficient and effective urban transport sector is a means to both promoting urban development and providing adequate access and mobility to the urban dweller. In this context, in 1993, the Government of Ghana initiated its first Urban Transport Project (UTP) with the express aims of increasing and sustaining the quality and efficiency of urban transport services and making their delivery more equitable across all income categories. This improved transport, resulting in increased mobility and access to employment, markets and other centres, as well as job opportunities is of prime importance because the accessibility of the poor to these facilities is a measure of their quality of life. This paper presents the transport development strategy which has been adopted under the country's first Urban Transport Project, and assesses what the likely impacts towards poverty alleviation will be.
Appropriate Transport and Rural Development: Economic Effects of an Integrated Rural Transport Project in Tanzania
Poor transport conditions are a substantial constraint for the increase of agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conventional rural transport projects, which focus exclusively on motorised transport can only partly remove these restrictions. Therefore, an integrated transport approach is proposed, which takes into account non-motorised transport. A field study in Tanzania demonstrates that these interventions have at least the same magnitude of effects as rural road improvements. A system dynamics model shows that a succession of road improvements and non-motorised interventions constitutes an optimum scenario, which can be entirely financed by road pricing. This new approach towards rural transport necessitates an extension of conventional appraisal methodologies.
Solving Bangkok's Transport Woes: The Need to Ask the Right Questions
Peter du Pont and Kristina Egan
Bangkok has a transport crisis with serious negative implications for health and welfare. Congestion is causing economic distress and technical solutions involving infrastructure development are being recommended by western consultants. The approach of government appears meddlesome due to institutional barriers, and the lack of regional land use planning and the absence of a transport strategy.
Heading for a New Transport Policy in Sweden
Swedish policy makers see a need for a thorough re-evaluation of transport policy and its related governmental structures. The focus of investment will be shifted away from major infrastructure development to more modest measures such as improvements of existing routes. An important element will be improving road safety. Reduction of noxious emissions, especially greenhouse gases is seen as vitally important.
The Future of Air Travel and International Tourism
Governments' attitudes towards aviation is a useful indicator of the value which they place on planetary health. With air travel increasing and a resultant growing demand for infrastructure the environment is losing out. It is important that air operators pay the full external costs of their industry and that this sector of the economy contributes to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. This will require multilateral action to reconcile the dichotomy of promoting air travel and improving planetary health.
Volume 3, Number 2 (1997) wtpp03.2.pdf
Developing a new consensus for physical activity in England: Evidence of the growing convergence of transport and public health policies
Adrian L. Davis
The recent consensus within physical education research that moderate physical activity should be (re)integrated into the routines of daily living has shifted the focus away from a traditional sports and exercise bias. This has come about largely as a result of new medical evidence and an understanding that the greatest public health benefit is to be achieved through increasing activity levels among those most sedentary. This change could strengthen recent efforts within the transport sector, which now includes a National Cycling Strategy, to promote cycling and a forthcoming walking strategy as environmentally sustainable modes of transport. This paper charts recent developments in the public health and physical activity sectors to illustrate how health and transport concerns are leading to a convergence of public policy goals. However, key to this are new ways of thinking and working, requiring broad intersectoral alliances.
A Wish called Wander: Reclaiming Automobility from the Motor Car
Ian Ker & Paul Tranter
Argues that in pursuit of a specific kind of "automobility" we have unwittingly reduced the independent mobility of many people in the community, including the elderly, the disabled, women and children. Discusses alternative understandings of the term automobility. Argues that the current dominant use (or misuse) of the term has facilitated the acceptance of the view that cars provide freedom. The mythical nature of this viewpoint is explored.
Freedom of movement for women: Feminist approaches to traffic reduction and a more ecological transport science
Gabi Zauke and Meike Spitzner
This paper is based on the thoughts, work and discussions of the German network Frauen in Bewegung (Women in Motion). There is a gender imbalance in transport planning. More women must be involved in planning, and the needs of women must be addressed, if we are to achieve a sustainable society.
Is telecommuting a panacea for urban transport ills? An Australian perspective
Dr Laurence Knight
Urban transport provides society with a range of benefits, but it also generates serious problems in the form of air and noise pollution, traffic accidents and congestion. Attempts to solve these problems through conventional means have achieved limited success. An alternative approach (promoted by information technology corporations) is for people to satisfy their needs without travelling - in the case of employment - by telecommuting. This paper examines the context in which the discussion about telecommuting is taking place, as well as recent data on the uptake of telecommuting. Coming from an Australian perspective, the paper argues that while telecommuting will not provide a stand-alone solution, it has the potential to influence travel distances in its own right, and (more importantly) enhance the effectiveness of other policy mechanisms.
Local Agenda 21, sustainability, and British policy on foodstore location - a case study
Alan G. Hallsworth, Rodney Tolley & Colin Black
The growth of out-of-town and edge-of-town superstores in Britain has had an adverse effect on the vitality & viability of traditional, long established retail centres. The dilemma facing many of these centres is whether a superstore in the town would increase business and induce a trickle down improvement to existing retailers.
Trunk Roads and the Generation of Traffic: the SACTRA report and associated Government guidance - What does it mean and does it matter?
A government study into traffic growth on major roads and motorways in the UK was published in December 1994 by the Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assesment ("SACTRA"). The government's formal response and an accompanying guidance note to road planners were published at the same time. This article, first written in pamphlet form in early 1995, surveys these three key documents and explains the substantial changes in appraisal methodology that should arise from them.
Volume 3, Number 3 (1997) wtpp03.3.pdf
Download this issue here: wtpp03.3.pdf
The Urban Transportation Crisis in Developing Countries: Alternative Policies for an Equitable Space
Eduardo Alcantara Vasconcellos
Planners in developing countries have tended to use transport modelling techniques designed by and developed for cities in the west. Besides being unsuitable, they are inappropriate to the everyday needs of people in developing countries. Planners must reassess their approach, rid themselves of their assumptions and begin by asking a new set of questions.
Sustainable Transport Solutions for Calcutta
Like many cities in developing countries, Calcutta has a very small ecological footprint - it is relatively self-sufficient. However, Calcuttans can see, and wish to attain, the relative comfort of western lifestyles. In addition, they can see through the sustainability rhetoric of western governments who, while demanding that developing countries should become more sustainable, are doing little to initiate and implement sustainability themselves. Indeed, western consultants are pushing inappropriate and unsustainable transport infrastructure on Calcutta. In the meantime, Calcutta and Calcuttans will suffer.
Calcutta in Pollution Perspective
Calcutta suffers from chronic pollution. It is pervasive, temporally, spatially and democratically. Every Calcuttan is affected and, as a result, many suffer ill health. There is no easy solution, but the main cause, povery, is identified.
Transport predicament in Calcutta
Urban transport in Calcutta is in crisis. Because of uncontrolled land use development, associated transport activity and an unrelenting increase in private motor vehicles, there is severe congestion and deteriorating public transport. In addition, air and noise pollution are insufferable.
The Left Alliance and the Unintended City: Is a civilised transition possible?
Attempts have been made to ban hand-pulled rickshaws in Calcutta in the past. Hand-pulled rickshaws are one of the last vestiges of feudalism and imperialism. The lives and livelihoods of those who pull the rickshaws are not normally considered because some politicians believe that "the poor must suffer a little for the good of the larger community".
Unco-ordinated public transport: Calcutta style
Calcutta's public transport has developed in a very haphazard manner, with a mixture of public and private providers. The private operators are beyond any regulation. It is totally unco-ordinated and insufficient for the needs of the city. Levels of investment are low, the infrastructure is in poor condition and it is in urgent need of integration.
The underground railway system in Calcutta
Calcutta's underground railway has tremendous unexploited potential as part of an integrated transport system. However it is just one of many competing providers, is grossly underutilised and makes an operational loss. A variety of solutions are required to improve its fortunes.
... How many shall live ... How many shall die ... ? Deaths resulting from the trans-Israel highway and alternatives: a risk assessment
Gary Ginsberg, Elaine Fletcher, E. Ben-Michael & Elihu D. Richter
" ... When dealing with maladies that kill or maim ... one must risk embarrassment to contribute to the welfare of fellow human beings ..." (Robertson, 1992). At Public Inquiries in many countries into new road construction, it is usual for the promoters to claim that building the road will save lives. Israel is experiencing this rhetoric at present. The truth is somewhat different. New road construction is certain to lead to more carnage, increased mortality and additional disability. Here, Route 6, a six-lane dual carriageway (3 lanes in each direction) is put to the test.
Transport and Health -- a biomedical perspective
Colin Bannon & Alex Costello
Global motorisation has become a major health problem. This is not only due to rapidly escalating road traffic accidents but also by the contribution of vehicle exhaust emissions to heart attacks, strokes and respiratory disease as well as the indirect effect of low quality living environments on levels of mental and physical fitness. Second only to tobacco smoking, motorisation has become the worlds most compelling health problem.
Children's journeys to school - new data and further comments
Mary Sissons Joshi, Morag MacLean & Wakefield Carter
This paper addresses a debate about children's journeys to school previously published in this journal in 1995. The parents of 315 children aged 7-11 in Oxfordshire were surveyed about their children's travel freedoms. The data are discussed in the context of current debates about transport, attitudes and lifestyle.
Investment in Transport Infrastructure: Have the EU initiatives promoted their balanced and rational distribution?
Constantinos I. Chlomoudis & Athanasios A. Pallis
The achievement of sustainable mobility and the completion of a unified trans-European transport network are two main targets of the European Union's (EU) Common Transport Policy. The selective modal distribution of investment in transport infrastructure is among the factors that can facilitate their fulfilment. Specifically, the fast modernisation of the currently underdeveloped and environment-friendly rail and maritime transport modes is essential. However, the substantial financial involvement of the EU has not promoted the balanced and rational distribution of investment in transport infrastructure within Europe. This is particularly evident in the case of Greece, where under investment and mono-modal priorities had characterised the national level policies. The emerging EU financial contribution has not managed to alter this unsustainable policy.
Wrestling with the Octopus - New approaches to tackling traffic and sprawl
At both sides of the Atlantic Ocean urban sprawl is characterised by many of the same features. Governments in both Britain and the U.S.A. are tackling it with various policy instruments in the form of carrots and sticks, although the balance is open to question.
When is a car NOT a car?
Co-operative Auto Network, as the name suggests, is a car sharing operation in Vancouver, Canada. Most members have dispensed with a car and use the co-op to provide them with private mobility as and when they need it.
Car Sharing: Breaking Out of the Transportation Trap
The history and present status of the car sharing mobility service is reviewed, with emphasis on developments in Western Europe and North America. Car sharing is viewed as an effective response to the rising costs and increasingly serious transportation problems created by private automobile transport. We note briefly evidence on the mobility behaviour of members of car sharing organisations and conclude by describing the promising future of a mobility service devoted to the concept of sharing cars.
Alternative Fuels, Alternative Drive Lines - The Route to Improvements?
Rudolf M. Petersen
Given the negative effects of increased Carbon dioxide emissions (and a limited fuel supply) it is necessary to develop alternative fuels for use in passenger transport. In the short term, however, increased fuel efficiency is more achievable and much more important. In addition, it is vital that commuter transport strategies are developed and implemented.
Changing industry behaviour: the role of prices and regulations
The role of the price mechanism in changing and controlling behaviour is becoming increasingly popular, most particularly in the field of transport. This article uses data from transport managers to argue that the power of the price mechanism is limited and that legislation and regulation are required to shift product from road to alternative modes.